A non-thermal heavy oil production method. Similar in concept to SAGD, in vapor extraction a solvent vapor is used to reduce viscosity of the heavy oil. The injected solvent vapor expands and dilutes the heavy oil by contact. The diluted heavy oil will drain by gravity to the lower horizontal well, to be produced.
Vertical Pugh Clause
Limits an operators ability to hold all depths of minerals with producing formations. Deals with depths of the minerals instead of areal extent addressed in a traditional Pugh Clause.
The resistance of fluid to flow. A high viscosity fluid does not flow as easily as a low viscosity fluid.
Volumetric cross section
The cross section of a material to photoelectric absorption, in barns/cm3. The volumetric cross section, U, is from the product of the photoelectric factor, PEF or Pe , and the electron density. In practice, U is usually calculated using the bulk density instead of the electron density. U is a volumetric quantity, whereas Pe is not. U is more useful in log interpretation since it can be used in a linear mixing law in terms of the volumes of the formation components.